Positions in the government bureaucracy are allocated on a similar basis. Shortly thereafter, General Gauraud, acting on behalf of the French Government, declared the creation of the present State of Lebanon under the name of the State of Greater Lebanon.
How would boundaries be determined given that the communities are not neatly separated geographically. Every party in the Middle East has reasons to fear a policy that could transform the politics of Lebanon.
And if Lebanese leaders, supported by Israel's military might, called for a withdrawal of Syrian troops, Assad would have little choice but to accede.
He was army commander-in-chief from until and was appointed prime minister of the interim military government in The government of Syrian President Hafez al-Assad has repeatedly proven its ruthlessness. By raising unrealistic political expectations and by diverting attention from feasible alternatives, calls for a unitary state could create tremendous political frustration and provoke new rounds of civil war.
If a conventional state is impossible, two alternatives remain: Moslems again resisted Christian domination, although this time they sought to take over the Lebanese government.
Outsiders clearly see the need to make concessions, but participants find it extremely difficult to follow their advice. And the right to change sect is enshrined in the constitution. Lebanon as it existed from to ; the Shiite and Druse communities in the south would make up a second unit; and the Sunnis of the north and east would either form an independent third region or reinstate links to Syria.
Because formal partition would meet such intense opposition from several groups, especially the pan-Arabists, Lebanon could be divided into federal units or cantons rather than independent countries. Israel needs tangible results to justify its "Operation Peace for Galilee" campaign: Thus the solution lies in a simultaneous repudiation of both parts of the National Pact and the establishment of a new framework for foreign and domestic relations—a New National Pact.
Amin Gemayel and his aides are looking to Washington for help.
Saeb Salam, a prominent Lebanese politician for the past 55 years, recently summarized this view, writing: In effect, the Christians became Arab and the Moslems became Lebanese.
With an economy based on commerce, finance, and foreign trade, an Arab boycott would jeopardize Lebanon's very livelihood.
Muslims, for the most part, prefer a unified, central government with an enhanced share of power commensurate with their larger share of the population. After a year and one-half of fighting, Maronites controlled the Mt.
The Parliament is elected by adult suffrage majority age for election is 21  based on a system of majority or "winner-take-all" for the various confessional groups. Those religious groups most favoured by the formula sought to preserve it, while those who saw themselves at a disadvantage sought either to revise it after updating key demographic data or to abolish it entirely.
In addition to these very real logistical problems, efforts to create a unitary state could have harmful psychological repercussions. This impasse persisted even after the civil war subsided in late Refugees face violence and abusesometimes at the hands of policeand politicians, including the newly-elected President Aoun, have scapegoated refugee communities.
Staring Into the Abyss Too Often Unless the current law is amended, the next parliament is likely to look like this one — leading to a carefully calibrated balance of opposing parties that maintains political stability at the risk of getting absolutely nothing done.
In addition, the United Nations and Saad Haddad, an Israeli-sponsored former Maronite Lebanese army major, among others, took over other portions of the country. The opportunity to sign a peace treaty with Lebanon may not arouse the outpouring of emotions that greeted the late Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat when he visited Jerusalem—years of experience with Egypt have made Israelis much more sober—but it would nonetheless have a strong impact on Israeli opinion.
All factions have called for a reform of the political system. None of the Lebanese communities is willing to transfer its military strength to the central government.
A new version of the war showed its ugly face briefly when, on May 7,a Cabinet meeting lacking Shiite representation adopted two decrees considered hostile to the Shiite organization of Hizbullah that were summarily rejected by the majority of the Shiite community.
Several features of the old National Pact could be retained to safeguard Maronite interests in a Lebanese state recognizing the Moslem majority. When such a consensus occurs, all constitutional barriers can be removed either within or outside the constitutional process, as illustrated by the election of the current President of the Republic before the expiration of the two-year period prescribed in article 49 of the Constitution.
This disagreement galvanized the Moslems to action. Palestinian refugeespredominantly Sunni Muslimswhose numbers are estimated at between , are not active on the domestic political scene. Furthermore, the religious representation in the House of Deputies on the basis of 6-to-5 ratio in favor of the Christians was not, as some believe, the result of the National Pact but of a July decision by the representative of the French Mandate, made shortly before the election that brought al-Khoury and al-Solh to power.
Only if they go to Israel. The municipal elections in May this past year sent a strong signal to this end with choosing local parties instead of the lists of prominent Sunni, Shia, and Christian parties.
Closing the border could be countered by using sea routes to trade with the Persian Gulf countries.
The Library of Congress > Law Library > Research & Reports > Legal Reports > Lebanon: Constitutional Law and the Political Rights of Religious Communities Law Library of. Lebanon: The Persistence of Sectarian Conflict October 5, This case study examines the sectarian hostilities between and among Christians, Sunni Muslims, Shi’a Muslims, and Druze that have characterized Lebanese religious, social, and political life since the country’s civil war ().
Politics of Lebanon. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Lebanon.
This article is part of a series on the politics and government of There is a very high degree of political activism among religious leaders across the sectarian spectrum.
The interplay for position and power among the religious, political, and party leaders and groups. A Country in Crisis? Challenges Facing Lebanon’s New Government Published December 16, can use Hezbollah to cause significant problems for Lebanon if Aoun and Hariri’s government reorients toward Riyadh.
Jacob holds a B.A. in philosophy and political science from Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas.
Share this: Email; Print. Current Situation: High risk of political and religious violence Further Details: Lebanon’s governing coalition backed by the Shiite militia Hezbollah has close links to the Syrian regime, while the opposition is sympathetic to Syrian rebels who have established a rear base in northern Lebanon.
As passive, embattled, and weak as the central government of Lebanon is today, it remains vital to the country's future, for it alone can settle Lebanon's ethnic and religious strife by revising the constitution.Political and religious problems in lebanon